The following info is complements of the “Don’t Retire Kid” / Project Play initiative sponsored by the Aspen Institute. They invested lots of $ and some of the nations best researchers to identify the benefits of kids participation in sports and how to best coach and retain them.

Some of the best news out of all these studies was that Softball was found to be #1 for girls across the many study areas:

Expert Opinion Rank: 1st Out of 10

Key Characteristics: Softball rates first among the 10 girls sports in the Aspen Institute/University of Texas psychosocial survey….Goal setting, initiative and health are strengths for softball.

The study shows that these benefits are most important in the 11-12 year age group, and yet unfortunately our local middle schools do not have Softball programs.

Palmetto Fury aims to fill this gap between Rec and High School….so that our girls can get all of the Girls’ Health, Goal Setting & Initiative benefits that the Project Play study finds.

Palmetto Fury is a SC Non Profit. Would you, or your business like to sponsor this local program to benefit Fort Mill, Tega Cay and Rock Hill area Girls’ Health, Goal Setting & Initiative. Please Contact Us if you are interested.

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Overview

The Healthy Sport Index recognizes that psychological and social aspects of sports play an important role in youth having a healthy and positive sports experience. The tool evaluated this category based on high school-athlete survey data (75% of the score) and expert analysis (25% of the score).

Data came from original national surveys of high school athletes designed and conducted by the Aspen Institute and analyzed by the University of Texas, as well as data compiled by the Women’s Sports Foundation for a report titled Teen Sport in America: Why Participation Matters. Each sport was measured by the following data (weighting for Psychosocial score in parentheses):

  • Personal Social Skills, Cognitive Skills, Goal Setting, Initiative, Health, Negative Experiences (40%)1
  • Psychological Health (15%)2
  • Substance Abuse (10%)3
  • Academic Achievement (10%)4
  • Expert Opinion (25%)5

Results

Below is how each sport ranked in the survey based on analysis by the Aspen Institute and University of Texas. (Note: These results comprised one component of the psychosocial analysis in the Healthy Sport Index, which also included data from a Women’s Sports Foundation study of boys and girls sports. The final psychosocial rankings were the product of aggregating the two and including the expert opinion score).

BoysRank*Girls
Football1Softball
Soccer2Soccer
Wrestling3Basketball
Swimming4Volleyball
Basketball5Swimming
Baseball6Lacrosse
Lacrosse7Tennis
Tennis8Cheerleading
Track and Field9Cross Country
Cross Country10Track and Field
Football
16.20642222
Soccer
16.13388128
Wrestling
16.12679012
Swimming
16.03435897
Basketball
15.91631579
Other
15.6683642
Baseball
15.56597598
Lacrosse
15.35621914
Tennis
15.29845238
Track and Field
15.05553571
Cross Country
14.99583333

Average of Overall YES-S by Primary Sport (Girls)

Softball
16.39801921
Soccer
16.2467825
Basketball
16.03563959
Volleyball
15.90372381
Swimming
15.89792063
Lacrosse
15.83483709
Tennis
15.61486643
Cheerleading
15.44785714
Cross Country
15.15363409
Track and Field
15.12389356
Other
14.88481481

Key Findings: Psychosocial

  1. Sports are generally a good thing for students who participate in themAs we dive into a detailed sport-by-sport look at the performance of these sports in the coming pages, it is easy to focus perhaps too closely on the differences and to overlook the similarities. That’s why it is important to remind ourselves that, in general, the findings of both this study and many others across the research literature indicate a clear connection between sports participation and outcomes like positive development, academic performance, and overall achievement. There are certainly concerns – again, in this study and others – that sports can foster higher rates of negative experiences as well, but in many cases the potential for negative experiences is counterbalanced by a potential for positive experiences that may exceed other developmental contexts.

In this sense, we should probably remind ourselves that, regardless of the sport-by-sport differences in this study, the notion that sports have the capacity to provide positive experiences comes through very clearly from these results. As you look at the breakdowns of the sports, keep in mind that we are talking about an 8-percent difference separating the top-ranked and bottom-ranked boys sports, and a 10-percent gap between No. 1 and 10 for girls sports. Are there differences? Absolutely. Are the sports ranked at the bottom producing undesirable experiences across the board? Absolutely not. These rankings, along with the work done by the Women’s Sports Foundation study, provide very clear evidence that playing sports, in general, has a positive impact on a child’s well-being.

  1. Traditional team sports come out aheadOne of the more interesting findings is that football appears to deliver strong psychosocial benefits; the Aspen Institute/University of Texas survey placed it at No. 1 (and it’s No. 2 in the overall Healthy Sport Index rankings). Despite the growing concerns over injuries and physical safety, football still provides a social context that is highly important to identity development and may be as well-suited as any other sport to fostering the experiences that are captured by the YES-S. The same can be said for many of the team sports that make up the top half of the rankings for both boys and girls. What is perhaps even more interesting than football being at the top for the boys is the relative consistency across genders with respect to the other sports. For both boys and girls, lacrosse, tennis, track and field, and cross country reside in the bottom half of the rankings – of particular interest is cross country and track and field sharing the bottom of the rankings for both boys and girls.

One could reach a bit and say that it seems as though more team sports occupy the top half of the rankings and more individual sports occupy the bottom half; that wouldn’t necessarily be inaccurate. There seems to be enough evidence to suggest that more traditional team sports may be structured – or, at least, interpreted by the participants – in a manner that produces more concrete experiences associated with well-being. Questions worth asking: Do team sports better meet the social needs of youth? Are there particular benefits that flow to those on teams in sports, such as football, that are more at the center of school culture? Or are most of these sports just more accessible to youth, given their larger rosters (with the notable exception of track and field and cross country) – and thus are more likely to improve the lives of its participants? While all of the sports measured are organized around teams, many of the sports at the bottom half of the rankings would be considered as individual sports within a team setting, rather than team sports. This may be important as we think about what fosters greater levels of positive development and well-being.

  1. No sport is “all good” or “all bad”While there were clearly sports that performed higher than other sports on the overall YES-S measure, it is interesting to note that the sports at the bottom of the rankings didn’t necessarily perform poorly across every category, nor did the sports at the top perform well across every category. Let’s look at a few examples to illustrate this point. Take boys basketball – although its overall rank is fifth, it actually ranked in the top four on four of the five positive categories; what pulled down its overall ranking was that it ranked dead last in producing negative experiences. Football and soccer, the top two ranked boys sports, didn’t fare much better in having fewer negative experiences (ranking eighth and seventh, respectively). Questions about negative experiences dealt with injuries causing missed class time; adult leaders who may be intimidating, manipulative or disparaging, or encouraged the athlete to do something morally wrong; teammates who may have gotten an athlete to use drugs or alcohol; and different treatment based on gender, race, ethnicity, disability or sexual orientation. But both football and soccer ranked so highly across the positive categories that it didn’t impact their overall ranking. Conversely, track and field and cross country both ranked very well on having fewer negative experiences (second and third, respectively), but did not perform well enough in the positive categories to be able to move up the list.

One could even say that for a lot of the top-ranking sports, they just seemed to produce “more” of everything, good and bad. And we see these trends mirrored, for the most part, in the rankings of girls sports as well. Track and field and cross country have virtually the same patterns, and the top-ranking sports also are not necessarily the sports with the fewest negative experiences. Softball, for example, ranks a middling sixth in negative experiences, but also sits atop three of the five other positive categories. So, it would seem that the good doesn’t necessarily come without the bad, and in some cases, the good is so good that it simply outweighs the bad.

  1. In some sports now, the kids who make high school teams specialized in that sport before age 10
    That was the case in baseball (9.7 years old) and softball (9.9), among the team sports that in recent years has offered – and in some cases encouraged – year-round training and play at ever-earlier ages. Despite evidence suggesting that multisport play when young delivers myriad benefits, from overall athleticism to lifelong engagement in sport, it’s clear that children and families are responding to marketplace opportunities and pressures to focus on one sport, which in turn may better position a child to play at the high school level. Early specialization also is associated with higher levels of overuse injuries and burnout, but those who continue to play into high school are more likely to have set aside other sports when young. Track and field has the latest age of specialization for both boys and girls (14.1 and 13.5, respectively). In terms of the psychosocial benefits associated with early specialization, the results are inconclusive.
  2. The survey highlights the need for more research related to youth in sports
    Beyond the findings in this report, researchers and stakeholders have access to few large-scale studies that attempt to understand how sports create experiences that impact the development of sports participants – both as athletes and people. Much of what is known has been gleaned from more systematic efforts to study young athletes in other countries, or through secondary analyses of large-scale studies that are not specifically focused on sports. As a researcher in this area, the results being reported here demonstrate the need for more in-depth attempts to study sport participants over time, and to try to unpack the complex way in which sports can impact development. What you will read should be viewed as the next steps in a long journey toward understanding how all of this works. More needs to be done to prioritize understanding of how a multibillion-dollar industry that serves millions of children actually works, or could work better.

Demographic Breakdown (Boys)

Age

Mean=16.11; SD=1.25

Response Count by State (n=640)

North Carolina
302
Michigan
296
National
42

School Setting

Suburban
218
Urban
70
Rural
39

School Classification Breakdown

Freshman
173
Sophomore
183
Junior
151
Senior
131

Racial Breakdown

White
482
Black/
AA
99
Hispanic/
Latino
30
Other
14
Asian
12
Native American
2
Pacific Islander
1

Distribution of Primary Sports (Boys)

Baseball
111
Basketball
76
Cross Country
20
Football
150
Lacrosse
54
Other
54
Soccer
73
Swimming
26
Tennis
21
Track and Field
28
Wrestling
27

Demographic Breakdown (Girls)

Age

Mean=15.90; SD=1.25

Response Count by State (n=650)

North Carolina
330
Michigan
226
National
94

School Setting

Suburban
171
Urban
75
Rural
57

School Classification Breakdown

Freshman
182
Sophomore
195
Junior
146
Senior
125

Racial Breakdown

White
478
Black/
AA
87
Hispanic/
Latino
27
Other
35
Asian
15
Native American
6
Pacific Islander
2

Distribution of Primary Sports (Girls)

Basketball
102
Cheerleading
30
Cross Country
19
Lacrosse
19
Other
45
Soccer
111
Softball
119
Swimming
30
Tennis
41
Track and Field
34
Volleyball
100

Sport-by-Sport Countdown (Boys)

#10 Cross Country

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization12.92.0751.93
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport6.453.561-1.3172
Average Number of School Sports Playing1.950.7590.51
Average Number of Club Sports Playing00-0.29510
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.41.569-0.1028
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing2.251.4820.3692
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.2750.544-0.2549
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.40.676-0.34810
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.4250.501-0.15710
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.5880.635-0.1629
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.4830.679-0.1719
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.1750.283-0.2823
Average YES-S Overall14.9962.16-0.81110

#9 Track and Field

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization14.1481.9553.1481
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport7.2963.55-0.4714
Average Number of School Sports Playing1.5360.9990.0865
Average Number of Club Sports Playing0.2140.499-0.0818
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.6071.9690.1065
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing2.0361.8750.1546
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.1540.958-0.37510
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.4240.93-0.3249
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.5250.72-0.0578
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.6630.666-0.0868
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.410.862-0.24410
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.1220.22-0.3352
Average YES-S Overall15.0563.611-0.7529

#8 Tennis

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization12.812.2051.814
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport8.0483.3690.286
Average Number of School Sports Playing1.6671.0650.2174
Average Number of Club Sports Playing0.3330.5770.0385
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.8571.4930.3561
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing2.4761.5040.5951
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.3280.461-0.2018
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.590.9-0.1598
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.5790.448-0.0036
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.5650.439-0.18410
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.6140.508-0.047
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.3770.57-0.0794
Average YES-S Overall15.2982.117-0.5098

#7 Lacrosse

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization11.7223.2060.7225
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport8.2593.1630.4927
Average Number of School Sports Playing1.370.623-0.088
Average Number of Club Sports Playing0.2960.5710.0016
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.370.808-0.13110
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing1.8151.011-0.0668
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.410.594-0.126
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.7410.911-0.0083
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.5280.64-0.0557
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.8030.3550.0532
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.5130.566-0.1418
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.6370.8720.189
Average YES-S Overall15.3562.438-0.4517

#6 Baseball

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization9.6943.531-1.30610
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport7.7912.8220.0245
Average Number of School Sports Playing1.7030.8480.2532
Average Number of Club Sports Playing0.270.504-0.0257
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.4771.069-0.0246
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing2.0361.2430.1555
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.5150.512-0.0145
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.6810.665-0.0676
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.4710.626-0.1129
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.7320.405-0.0187
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.6160.531-0.0386
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.4490.679-0.0086
Average YES-S Overall15.5662.13-0.2416

#5 Basketball

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization10.1873.552-0.8138
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport9.123.1061.3539
Average Number of School Sports Playing1.5261.0130.0766
Average Number of Club Sports Playing0.3821.0060.0863
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.4610.916-0.0417
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing1.9081.3080.0275
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.6130.5080.0833
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.8530.7920.1052
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.6250.5040.0434
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.7640.4380.0146
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.7070.5550.0543
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.6460.8860.18910
Average YES-S Overall15.9162.1350.1095

#4 Swimming

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization10.7313.606-0.2697
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport9.682.8541.91310
Average Number of School Sports Playing1.0770.628-0.37310
Average Number of Club Sports Playing0.6920.5490.3972
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.6541.9790.1523
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing1.6541.853-0.2279
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.4060.689-0.1247
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.6220.931-0.1267
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.6970.6820.1152
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.8020.3870.0523
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.6250.465-0.0295
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.1180.213-0.3391
Average YES-S Overall16.0342.4790.2274

#3 Wrestling

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization13.8522.7132.8522
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport6.8522.755-0.9163
Average Number of School Sports Playing1.4810.8490.0317
Average Number of Club Sports Playing0.370.6290.0754
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.631.9640.1284
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing2.1112.3260.234
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.6050.5470.0764
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.6920.908-0.0565
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.7210.3750.1381
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.7890.3150.0395
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.7050.4370.0514
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.3850.702-0.0725
Average YES-S Overall16.1271.9890.323

#2 Soccer

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization10.0413.405-0.9599
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport8.9322.9741.1648
Average Number of School Sports Playing1.6990.9080.2493
Average Number of Club Sports Playing0.7530.7030.4581
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.6580.9610.1562
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing2.2190.9890.3383
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.6290.3830.12
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.6950.827-0.0534
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.6230.4560.0415
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.8040.2850.0541
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.8550.2910.2011
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.4730.6890.0167
Average YES-S Overall16.1341.5660.3272

#1 Football

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization11.5413.3910.5416
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport6.3362.779-1.4321
Average Number of School Sports Playing1.2931.167-0.1579
Average Number of Club Sports Playing0.0870.417-0.2099
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.381.145-0.1229
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing1.6471.639-0.23510
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.6310.4870.1021
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.9290.7850.1811
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.6330.4830.053
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.7940.3790.0444
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.7210.4870.0672
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.5010.7210.0448
Average YES-S Overall16.2062.1620.3991

 Sport-by-Sport Countdown (Girls)

#10 Track and Field

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization13.52.7222.1511
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport5.7063.1-2.1041
Average Number of School Sports Playing1.8821.3870.0817
Average Number of Club Sports Playing0.2060.41-0.2458
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.4120.743-0.056
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing2.1761.1140.0436
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.4920.42-0.149
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.5540.929-0.2038
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.3590.63-0.29210
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.6880.489-0.0839
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.490.556-0.1879
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.4590.588-0.133
Average YES-S Overall15.1242.401-0.77510

#9 Cross Country

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization12.0533.7630.7044
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport6.0533.308-1.7572
Average Number of School Sports Playing2.0530.5240.2517
Average Number of Club Sports Playing0.2110.419-0.247
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.2630.562-0.1986
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing2.3680.8950.2356
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.3130.482-0.31910
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.2790.617-0.47710
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.6030.4-0.0499
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.7060.336-0.065T-7
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.6280.383-0.0498
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.3760.68-0.2132
Average YES-S Overall15.1541.598-0.7459

#8 Cheerleading

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization11.2673.638-0.0828
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport7.6332.646-0.1776
Average Number of School Sports Playing1.9332.2880.1323
Average Number of Club Sports Playing0.0670.254-0.38410
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.5331.1670.0723
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing2.32.4230.1662
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.6070.69-0.0255
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.7940.8150.0375
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.6160.718-0.0368
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.7060.673-0.065T-7
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.4640.92-0.21210
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.740.6710.15110
Average YES-S Overall15.4483.744-0.4518

#7 Tennis

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization12.8292.2461.4812
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport6.223.119-1.593
Average Number of School Sports Playing1.6340.799-0.1678
Average Number of Club Sports Playing0.1950.511-0.2569
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.2440.582-0.21810
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing1.780.962-0.35310
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.590.481-0.0426
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.341.019-0.4179
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.6880.5040.0364
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.6670.494-0.10410
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.6860.5770.015
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.3560.634-0.2331
Average YES-S Overall15.6152.354-0.2847

#6 Lacrosse

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization12.7372.4911.3883
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport9.4212.4571.61110
Average Number of School Sports Playing1.4210.838-0.389
Average Number of Club Sports Playing0.7370.6530.2862
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.4740.6970.0125
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing1.8421.068-0.2929
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.50.449-0.1328
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.6810.841-0.0766
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.7080.3360.0573
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.8470.2650.0772
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.7960.3710.122
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.6980.6960.1099
Average YES-S Overall15.8351.59-0.0646

#5 Swimming

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization11.33.153-0.0497
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport7.2333.181-0.5774
Average Number of School Sports Playing1.30.837-0.50210
Average Number of Club Sports Playing0.3330.479-0.1175
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.71.8780.2381
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing1.91.788-0.2348
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.5430.66-0.0897
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.8190.9280.0624
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.7330.4590.0812
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.7330.425-0.0386
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.6670.463-0.0096
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.5960.7360.0075
Average YES-S Overall15.8982.332-0.0015

#4 Volleyball

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization11.762.3620.4117
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport8.7243.0520.9159
Average Number of School Sports Playing1.991.1050.1882
Average Number of Club Sports Playing0.760.6830.3091
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.371.079-0.0928
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing2.261.3070.1264
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.7110.3730.0791
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.6740.734-0.0837
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.6720.50.025
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.7760.3780.0054
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.7080.4850.0314
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.6360.6140.0478
Average YES-S Overall15.9042.0570.0054

#3 Basketball

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization11.912.5390.5615
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport8.2943.4490.4847
Average Number of School Sports Playing1.8920.9220.0916
Average Number of Club Sports Playing0.3140.507-0.1376
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.3730.832-0.0897
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing2.1081.089-0.0267
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.6710.4470.0394
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.9490.750.1922
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.6340.488-0.0187
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.7670.388-0.0045
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.6390.546-0.0377
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.6240.6370.0357
Average YES-S Overall16.0362.1180.1373

#2 Soccer

#1 Softball

AverageStand. Dev.Above or Below MeanCategory Rank
Average Age of Specialization9.9413.021-1.40810
Average Months/Year Playing Primary Sport8.5293.0910.728
Average Number of School Sports Playing1.8991.3040.0985
Average Number of Club Sports Playing0.5211.0640.074
Average Number of Informal Sports Playing0.4871.4310.0264
Average Total Number of Unique Sports Playing2.2271.820.0935
Average of YES-S Personal and Social Skills3.6950.4340.0633
Average of YES-S Cognitive Skills2.8520.7810.0953
Average of YES-S Goal Setting Skills3.7470.3910.0961
Average of YES-S Initiative Skills3.8580.2640.0871
Average of YES-S Health Skills3.8450.2920.1691
Average of YES-S Negative Experience1.5990.6760.016
Average YES-S Overall16.3981.4430.4991

Appendix: YES-S Survey Instrument

Please rate whether you had the following experiences in your primary sport:

Scoring*: 4 (Yes, definitely); 3 (Quite a bit); 2 (A little); 1 (Not at all)

Personal and Social Skills:
I became better at sharing responsibility
I learned that working together requires some compromising
I learned to be patient with other group members
I learned how my emotions and attitude affect others in the group

Cognitive Skills:
I have improved: Skills for finding information
I have improved: Academic skills (reading, writing, math, etc.)
I have improved: Computer/internet skills
I have improved: Artistic/creative skills

Goal Setting:
I learned to find ways to achieve my goals
I set goals for myself in this activity
I learned to consider possible obstacles when making plans
I observed how others solved problems and learned from them

Initiative:
I learned to push myself
I learned to focus my attention
I put all my energy into this activity
I have improved athletic/physical skills

Health**:
I felt like a happier person by playing this sport**
I made more friends by playing this sport**
I was more interested in being physically active**

Negative Experiences:
I have had an injury in the past year in my primary sport that caused me to miss at least 1 day of school**
Adult leaders in this activity are controlling and manipulative
Adult leaders intimidate me
Adult leaders make personal comments that I find upsetting
Adult leaders encouraged me to do something I believed morally wrong
Youth in this activity got me into drinking alcohol or using drugs
I was treated differently because of my gender, race, ethnicity, disability, or sexual orientation

* Values reversed from standard YES-S
** Added dimension/item

Demographic and Sport-Specific Survey Questions
Choose which gender you identify as
Choose the race you identify as
How old are you in years?
Choose your current high school class standing
At what level do you play any of the following sports? [JV, Varsity, Club, Informal]
What would you consider to be your primary sport?
At what state conference level does your school compete? (North Carolina only)
What is your home zip code? (Michigan/National Survey only)
How would you describe the setting of your high school [Urban, Suburban, Rural]
At what age did you begin to focus most of your sports activity on your primary sport?
How many months a year do you currently play your primary sport?

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